Pest Glossary

Glossary of Pest Terms

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A

a pest – a pest is any insect or rodent that inhabits a house or a building in, under or around a structure.  Pest control is the general  service that applies preventative or remedial treatment to reduce the potential for damage and or health issues associated with pests.  In Virginia, pests typically treated and prevented by pest control specialists like PESTOUT include termites, spiders, bed bugs, roaches, crickets, mosquitoes, spiders, ants, wasps, bees, hornets, spiders, rats and mice.

ant control – ant control involves exclusion and sanitation, that is keeping them out, and  keeping areas where sweet foods may be stored sanitized.  No building entirely eliminates ants, but they are best controlled by reducing their population year round, which is more effective than a single treatment with no follow up or prevention.

ant extermination – ants are best exterminated by baits. Baits are any poison mixed with various kinds of sweet substances attractive to ants.  Worker ants feed on them , carrying them back the nest where they are distributed around the colony, even to the queens.  Sprays and other forms of natural pest control substances can also be used to exterminate ants.

ant pest control

any pest – any pest that invades the structure of your home, whether insect or rodent, can be dealt with effectively and removed.  All pests need moisture and food.  Making sure all access points are closed and proper prevention treatments are maintained will go a long way toward keeping any and all pests out.

aphid

aphid control

Acanthamoeba Infection - is a microscopic, free-living ameba (single-celled living organism) that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system. The ameba is found worldwide in the environment in water and soil.

African Sleeping Sickness (African trypanosomiasis) also known as "sleeping sickness," is caused by microscopic parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina species), which is found only in rural Africa. Although the infection is not found in the United States, historically, it has been a serious public health problem in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa.

American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) Chagas disease is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the disease in 1909. It is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors that are found only in the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread). Chagas disease (T. cruzi infection) is also referred to as American trypanosomiasis.

Arachnids – an animal with four pairs of legs and a body with two segments, belonging to a large class that includes spiders, scorpions, and mites. Class: Arachnida

Arsenic – arsenic is a poison used as a bait in ant control. Baits are insecticides that are mixed with a sweet substance worker ants eat, and then carry back to the colony, exterminating it. Baits are one of the most effective treatments for any yard or crawl colonization, and house infestation.

B

bed bites – are the bites caused by bed bugs.  There are times when the bites get infected and can complicate into a MRSA infection.  Bed bug bites can last for several weeks and should be treated by a competent health practitioner.

bedbug –  a small wingless bloodsucking insect that infests the bedding and furnishings of houses and
the nests of animals.  Family: Cimicidae

bed bugs control – after an infestation of bedbugs, control requires a very extensive and comprehensive program to eliminate them from their habitat in a house.

bed bug bites – bed bug bites first appear as small, red, itchy spots around an eighth to a quarter inch in diameter. They can increase to around the size of a dime or a nickel.  If there is infection present they can eventually show as a small bulls-eye pattern around the core area of the bite.

bed bug detection - They are flat red-brown seed shaped insects about the size of a small nail head.  Bed bugs are visible to the naked eye and can be seen in the crevices of mattresses around the piping and in sheets.  They also hide around baseboards and in cracks around trim and molding, or in the support rails of a bed.  They can also populate from closets and suitcases, where they have been transported from foreign countries.

 bed bug evidence – Evidence of bed bugs is found in their bites, and also feces that they leave behind after feeding on people who are asleep in bed.  They are usually not detectable when they are actually feeding.  After a few days welts appear as evidence of a bite.  If there is a swarm, bites can be profuse.  Feces are visible but very small, black and dot shaped. They look like small poppy seeds around the area of feeding, usually in sheets.

bed bug extermination – diatomaceous earth

bed bug infestations

bed bug pesticide

bee removal

born diseases

Babesiosis (Babesia Infection) Babesiosis is caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells and are spread by certain ticks. In the United States, tickborne transmission is most common in particular regions and seasons: it mainly occurs in parts of the Northeast and upper Midwest and usually peaks during the warm months.

Balantidiasis (Balantidium Infection) Balantidium coli, though rare in the US, is an intestinal protozoan parasite that can infect humans. These parasites can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route by contaminated food and water. Balantidium coli infection is mostly asymptomatic, but people with other serious illnesses can experience persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes a perforated colon.

Bed Bugs - a problem worldwide, are resurging, causing property loss, expense, and inconvenience. The good news is that bed bugs do not transmit disease. The best way to prevent bed bugs is regular inspection for signs of an infestation.

Body Lice Infestation (Pediculosis) Adult body lice are 2.3-3.6 mm in length. Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing and only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are known to spread disease. Body lice infestations (pediculosis) are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact but are generally limited to persons who live under conditions of crowding and poor hygiene (for example, the homeless, refugees, etc.). Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.

Best Practices for Pesticide Drift

Bioaerosols

Biosolids

Bisphenol A

Brucellosis is a disease that can be spread from infected animals to humans. It is caused by bacteria called Brucella

C

Crabs (Pubic Lice) Adult pubic lice are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.).

Cockroaches - control

Creosote

Common pests

D

Disease from mice

Diazinon

Dibrom

E

EM Rash Between three days to several weeks after being bitten by an infected tick, 70-90% of people develop a circular or oval rash, called erythema migrans (or EM), at the site of the bite. To qualify
as an EM, the rash must be at least two inches in diameter. That is because bites by some tick species can cause local inflammation and redness around the bite that could be mistaken
for an EM. Unlike localized inflammation, an EM rash will increase in size and may become more than 12 inches across. As it enlarges, the area around the center of the rash clears, giving
it a “bull's eye” appearance.

Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis Although several diseases can be caused by bacteria in the

Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genera, the most common in Virginia are human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). HME is transmitted only by the
lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and most commonly by bites from adult ticks. Lone star ticks are very common and are responsible for the most tick bites to people in Virginia.

HGA is transmitted only by the blacklegged tick (most commonly by bites from nymphal stage ticks). The bacteria causing HME or HGA will not be transmitted unless the infected tick has been attached and feeding for at least 24 hours.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis? Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease and because of the rate of death among infected persons, it is regarded as one of the more serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States.  EEE occurs in the eastern half of the US as is most commonly detected around swamps in Virginia’s coastal plain.

Ectoparasites   (Lice) Although the term ectoparasites can broadly include blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes (because they are dependent on a blood meal from a human host for their survival), this term is generally used more narrowly to refer to organisms such as ticks, fleas, lice, and mites that attach or burrow into the skin and remain there for relatively long periods of time (e.g., weeks to months). Arthropods are important in causing diseases in their own right, but are even more important as vectors, or transmitters, of many different pathogens that in turn cause tremendous morbidity and mortality from the diseases they cause.

Ehrlichiosis is a tickborne disease of humans and animals caused by bacteria named Ehrlichia. The bacteria are transmitted by ticks and can infect two different types of white blood cells. The first human case in the U.S. was reported in 1986, in a man exposed to ticks in Arkansas.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Fact Sheet

F

FLEAS

Fleas Plague from fleas is an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis. People usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an infected animal. Millions of people in Europe died from plague in the Middle Ages, when human homes and places of work were inhabited by flea-infested rats. Today, modern antibiotics are effective against plague, but if an infected person is not treated promptly, the disease is likely to cause illness or death.

G

Giardiasis is an intestinal illness caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia. It is a fairly common cause of diarrheal illness.

H

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a deadly disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva.  Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in the virus that is on dust and other debris floating in the air.  HPS was first recognized in the southwest United States in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States.  One case has been identified in Virginia.  Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection.

Haloacetic Acids (HAAs)  HABs Brochure

I

Insect

IPM  Pest Management

J

K

Kala-azar (Leishmaniasis, Leishmania Infection) Cutaneous leishmaniasis, the most common form of the disease, causes skin ulcers. Visceral leishmaniasis causes a severe systemic disease that is usually fatal without treatment. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form affecting the nasal and oral mucosa. Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of small insects called sand flies. Many leishmanial species infect animals as well as humans. The distribution is world-wide.

L

La Crosse encephalitis  La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis is a mosquito-borne virus that was discovered in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1963. Since then, the virus has been identified in several Midwestern and Mid-Atlantic states, including western parts of Virginia.

larve

LICE

Head Lice Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse), are roughly 2-3 mm long. Head lice infest the head and neck and attach their eggs to the base of the hair shaft. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Head lice infestation, or pediculosis, is spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. Adult body lice are 2.3-3.6 mm in length. Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing and only move to the skin to feed.

Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis) Adult head lice are roughly 2-3 mm long. Head lice infest the head and neck and attach their eggs to the base of the hair shaft. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Head lice infestation, or pediculosis, is spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.

Body lice Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse, clothes louse) are known to spread disease.  Body lice infestations (pediculosis) are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact but are generally limited to persons who live under conditions of crowding and poor hygiene (for example, the homeless, refugees, etc.). Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. Improved hygiene and access to regular changes of clean clothes is the only treatment needed for body lice infestations.

Pubic lice Pthirus pubis ("crab" louse, pubic louse). are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.).

Pubic lice infestations (pthiriasis) are usually spread through sexual contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.
Both over-the-counter and prescription medications are available for treatment of pubic lice infestations.

Lithium

Lyme Disease Fact Sheet

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCMV)
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by infection with a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. The number of Lyme disease cases reported in Virginia has increased substantially in recent years.

Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar, Leishmania Infection) Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of small insects called sand flies. Many leishmanial species infect animals as well as humans. The distribution is world-wide.

Lice Infestation (Body, Head, or Pubic Lice, Pediculosis, Pthiriasis)

M

Malaria (Plasmodium Infection)  Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness.

Mite Infestation (Scabies)  Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.

Myiasis Myiasis is the infection of a fly larva (maggot) in human tissue. This occurs in tropical and subtropical areas. Myiasis is rarely acquired in the United States; people typically get the infection when they travel to tropical areas in Africa and South America. People traveling with untreated and open wounds are more at risk for getting myiasis. Fly larvae need to be surgically removed by a medical professional.

Mercury

Mold  - Molds are types of fungi that are found everywhere. Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air.  Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet.  Visible mold is an indication of excessive dampness; the source of moisture should be sought and corrected before the mold contamination is remediated. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture. Molds are part of the natural environment.  Outdoors, molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees, but indoors, mold growth should be avoided.  There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

mold disease

mice and disease

Mosquitoes

Mosquitoes, West Nile Virus

mosquito spray

mosquito treatment

mosquito control

N

 Neglected Infections of Poverty  - are parasitic, bacterial and viral infections that disproportionately affect impoverished people in the United States. These infections are considered neglected because relatively little attention has been devoted to surveillance, prevention, and/or treatment of these infections.

natural pest control

O

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) Onchocerciasis, or River Blindness, is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted through repeated bites by blackflies of the genus Simulium. The disease is called River Blindness because the blackfly that transmits the infection lives and breeds near fast-flowing streams and rivers and the infection can result in blindness. In addition to visual impairment or blindness, onchocerciasis causes skin disease, including nodules under the skin or debilitating itching. Worldwide onchocerciasis is second only to trachoma as an infectious cause of blindness.

Oral Rabies Vaccination

organic bug

organic pest

Ozone

P

pest control

pest solution

pest removal

pest management service

pest and pesticides

pest and disease
pest killer

Permethrin Parasitic infections cause a tremendous burden of disease in both the tropics and subtropics as well as in more temperate climates. Of all parasitic diseases, malaria causes the most deaths globally. Malaria kills approximately 1 million people each year, most of them young children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Plague is an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis. People usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an infected animal. Millions of people in Europe died from plague in the Middle Ages, when human homes and places of work were inhabited by flea-infested rats. Today, modern antibiotics are effective against plague, but if an infected person is not treated promptly, the disease is likely to cause illness or death.

Protozoa are microscopic, one-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic in nature. They are able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from just a single organism. Transmission of protozoa that live in a human intestine to another human typically occurs through a fecal-oral route (for example, contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact). Protozoa that live in the blood or tissue of humans are transmitted to other humans by an arthropod vector (for example, through the bite of a mosquito or sand fly).
Psittacosis is a disease that is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci and associated with psittacine birds; however, the bacteria can also infect poultry and non-psittacine birds.
Pediculosis (Head or Body Lice Infestation) Lice are parasitic insects that can be found on people's heads, and bodies, including the pubic area. Human lice survive by feeding on human blood. Lice found on each area of the body are different from each other. The three types of lice that live on humans are:

Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse)

Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse, clothes louse)

Proboscis -  the long or tubular mouthparts of some insects, worms, and spiders, used for feeding, sucking, and other purposes

Pthirus pubis ("crab" louse, pubic louse)

Pthiriasis (Pubic Lice Infestation)  Adult pubic lice are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.).

Plasmodium Infection (Malaria) Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.

Q

Q Fever

R

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is caused by infection with a bacterium called Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of symptoms and can be fatal if not
treated. Nearly all cases occur in the spring and summer months.

Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. It kills almost any mammal or human that gets sick from it. The rabies virus is mainly in the saliva and brain of rabid animals. It can be transmitted through a bite or by getting saliva or brain tissue in a wound or in the eye or mouth.

Rat-Bite Fever (RBF) is bacterial disease caused by Actinobacillus muris and Spririllum minus. In the United States, rat-bite fever is primarily due to infection with A. muris. Rats are the main reservoir of these organisms.
rat traps

rats and mouse

Raccoon Roundworm Infection (Baylisascariasis, Baylisascaris Infection)

control of rats

Radon

rodents

S

St. Louis encephalitis?  St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) is closely related to West Nile virus and is transmitted by the same mosquito species.

Scabies Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.

T

termite control

Tick  The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis), formerly known as the deer tick, is the only carrier of Lyme disease in the Eastern U.S. The blacklegged tick's name comes from it being the only tick in the Eastern U.S. that bites humans and has legs that are black (or dark chocolate brown) in color.

termite treatment cost

termite treatment
Tularemia is a disease of animals and humans caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Rabbits, hares, and rodents are especially susceptible and often die in large numbers during outbreaks. Humans can become infected through several routes, including:
Tick and deer fly bites
Skin contact

U

Using Repellents Safely

V

Vectors  In epidemiology, a vector is any agent (person, animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism

W

wasp control

West Nile virus - The West Nile virus infection is one that is spread by the bite of infected mosquitoes and usually causes a mild illness, but may also cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) or polio-like paralysis.  This virus is named after the West Nile region of Uganda where the virus was first isolated in 1937. It was first identified in the United States in New York in 1999.

X

wasp control

Z

Zoonotic Diseases (Diseases spread from animals to people) Diseases transmitted from animals are called zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases can be caused by parasites and can cause various symptoms such as diarrhea, muscle aches, and fever. Sometimes infected persons experience severe symptoms that can be life-threatening.

 

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